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Atovaquone for Dogs and Cats

By Barbara Forney, VMD

Last reviewed: 7/12/2022

Commonly prescribed for: Babesia Gibsoni

Species: Dogs and Cats

Therapeutic Class: Broad-spectrum Antiprotozoal


Basic Information

Atovaquone is a broad-spectrum, antiprotozoal drug. Its mechanism of action is via inhibition of the parasite's mitochondrial electron transport. Atovaquone is used in human medicine in combination with azithromycin to treat Babesia microti infection. It has a favorable safety profile and appears to have fewer reports of adverse reactions than some of the previous treatments for Babesia. 

Dogs and Cats

Atovaquone in combination with azithromycin is a promising new treatment for Babesia gibsoni in dogs. Babesia is a protozoal parasite of mammalian red blood cells and it is an emerging disease in many parts of the world. B. gibsoni infections are now widely endemic in the United States. There are two forms of Babesia that may infect dogs: the large Babesia (2-4 x 4-7m) and the small Babesia (1.1-2 x 1.2-4m). B. gibsoni is a small Babesia, as is Babesia microti, the protozoal species that infects humans.

The majority of cases of B. gibsoni found in the United States are in the Bull Terrier population or in dogs that have been bitten by or have fought with a Bull Terrier. Natural vectors for B. gibsoni are ixodid ticks and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Vertical transmission of B. gibsoni also may occur, as an infection has been found in a dam and her three-day-old pups. Clinical infections are most frequent in young animals.

B. gibsoni infections have been hard to treat and have not responded well to previous anti-babesial drugs, such as imidocarb diproprionate. Although controlled studies have not been published, the combination of atovaquone with azithromycin may improve the recovery rate and is thought to produce fewer adverse reactions. One author states that 50% of treated animals become PCR negative in six weeks.

Atovaquone combined with azithromycin also is used to treat Cytauxzoon felis. C. felis is a serious tick-borne protozoal disease of cats. Although there are no controlled studies yet, preliminary work using atovaquone and azithromycin suggest an improved survival rate of >60%. The success rate for treatment of C. felis with imidocarb was reported at 0-50%.

Atovaquone Side Effects

No information was found in the literature on the side effects of the atovaquone and azithromycin combination in animals. Malarone (atovaquone combined with proguanil hydrochloride) should not be used in dogs due to a high incidence of gastrointestinal side effects.

In humans, the most commonly reported side effects to the drug combination of atovaquone and azithromycin were diarrhea and rash and the most commonly reported side effects to Malarone were related to the digestive tract. They included abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and diarrhea.

Precautions

No information was found in the literature regarding specific precautions for atovaquone in dogs or cats.

Drug Interactions

No information was found in the literature regarding drug interactions for atovaquone.

Overdose

No information was found in the literature regarding overdose.
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Popular Atovaquone Dosage Forms

Dosage options starting at $1.18 per dose

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Oil based oral suspension with a wide variety of flavoring options.

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