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Dogs and cats
May Be Prescribed by Vets for:
Lymphoma chemotherapy, granulomatous menigoencephalomyelitis.
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Procarbazine is a chemotherapeutic drug that is used as a part of the MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) protocol to treat relapsed lymphoma in dogs and cats. There also are studies that indicate that procarbazine may be useful as a sole, long-term treatment for granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis in dogs.
Procarbazine is an atypical alkylating agent that inhibits RNA, DNA and protein synthesis. It is used in human medicine to treat brain tumors, such as oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma, and Hodgkin's Disease. Based on information extrapolated from human research, procarbazine is well-absorbed orally and equilibrates rapidly between the plasma and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Procarbazine is metabolized by the liver and kidney and excreted in the urine. Urinary metabolites are cytotoxic.
Procarbazine is used as a part of the MOPP protocol for relapsed lymphoma in dogs. In one study, which looked at the MOPP protocol in a group of dogs with advanced lymphoma, the median survival with treatment was 10 months. The only prognostic indicator for poor outcome in this group was inappetence. at the time of diagnosis. The majority of dogs tolerated the MOPP protocol well.
The MOPP protocol is used both as first-line chemotherapy and as rescue chemotherapy in cats with lymphoma. Cats that were eating well and not "sick" at the time of diagnosis tended to respond better to chemotherapy.
Procarbazine has been studied as a sole treatment for granulomatous menigoencephalomyelitis (GME) in dogs. GME is the second most-common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of dogs. It is more commonly seen in toy breeds. Left untreated, the survival time for dogs with GME is less than one month. GME was traditionally treated with prednisone, but recent studies have looked at treatment with procarbazine or cyclosporine. The procarbazine study showed an improved survival time of 14 months.
The most-common side effects are gastrointestinal (GI), including anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. In one study, GI toxicity occurred in 28% of treated animals. Bone-marrow suppression, central nervous system (CNS) depression, and peripheral neuropathy are less common but significant side-effects.
Overdose with procarbazine should be treated aggressively. If recognized promptly, gut-emptying protocols should be employed. Supportive care for GI upset, bone-marrow suppression, and CNS depression may be warranted.
Dr. Barbara Forney is a veterinary practitioner in Chester County, Pennsylvania. She has a master's degree in animal science from the University of Delaware and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine in 1982.
She began to develop her interest in client education and medical writing in 1997. Recent publications include portions of The Pill Book Guide to Medication for Your Dog and Cat, and most recently Understanding Equine Medications published by the Bloodhorse.
Dr. Forney is an FEI veterinarian and an active member of the AAEP, AVMA, and AMWA.
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