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Dogs, Cats and Horses
May Be Prescribed by Vets for:
Inflammatory conditions of the conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, and anterior chamber
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Prednisolone is a synthetic corticosteroid that may be used systemically or topically. This monograph discuses the ophthalmic use of prednisolone acetate. Topical corticosteroids are used to treat inflammatory processes of the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, and anterior chamber. Disorders of the posterior chamber and the eyelid are generally treated with systemic corticosteroids, as topical ophthalmic corticosteroids do not penetrate these structures adequately.
When choosing among ophthalmic corticosteroids, consideration should be given to relative potency, penetration, ease, and frequency of application. Prednisolone acetate has approximately four times the anti-inflammatory potency of cortisone. Dexamethasone is a more potent corticosteroid than prednisolone acetate, but prednisolone acetate has superior penetration into the anterior chamber. Prednisolone acetate is a liquid suspension which may be administered directly or through a sub-palpebral catheter.
Prednisolone acetate is used in a wide variety of inflammatory conditions of the sclera and episclera, including scleritis, episcleritis, ocular nodular fasciitis, nodular granulomatous episclerokeratitis, proliferative keratoconjunctivitis of collies, and fibrous histiocytoma. Prednisolone acetate is used in non-ulcerative corneal disorders, including chronic superficial keratitis of dogs, and feline eosinophilic keratitis. It is the preferred orticosteroid for treatment of anterior uveitis in small animals due to the superior penetration in the anterior chamber when compared to dexamethasone.
Prednisolone acetate is used to treat anterior uveitis in the horse. Anterior uveitis or equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most-common cause of blindness in the horse. The goals for medical treatment of ERU are to reduce pain and inflammation and to preserve vision. ERU flares should be treated aggressively with topical ophthalmic corticosteroids and system non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Prednisolone acetate is, in many instances, the corticosteroid of choice due to the excellent ocular penetration and the ability to use it with sub-palpebral catheter.
Prednisolone acetate is also used to treat non-ulcerative corneal inflammatory diseases in the horse, including immune mediated keratophathies (IMMK) and eosinophilic keratitis. In addition to treatment with topical corticosteroids, horses with eosinophilic keratitis should be dewormed two times with Ivermectin, 10 days apart.
Dr. Barbara Forney is a veterinary practitioner in Chester County, Pennsylvania. She has a master's degree in animal science from the University of Delaware and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine in 1982.
She began to develop her interest in client education and medical writing in 1997. Recent publications include portions of The Pill Book Guide to Medication for Your Dog and Cat, and most recently Understanding Equine Medications published by the Bloodhorse.
Dr. Forney is an FEI veterinarian and an active member of the AAEP, AVMA, and AMWA.
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